托福寫作的真面目

托福寫作 2019-09-19閱讀(3507)

  你好,中二病少年??!

  托福獨立寫作題目見多了,你就會發現處處是針對人性的拷問和對價值的權衡。

  “你是否同意移居其他城市會造成老朋友的丟失”其實是在問,“友誼能否經得起距離的考驗”;“你喜歡看教育類節目還是娛樂節目”其實是在呼吁答題者考量“媒體內容對于觀眾的正負面影響”;而“你是否同意年長的朋友給予的建議更優”其實是在質問“年齡”與“智慧”是否具有正比例關系;甚至,它激起了關于“或許有時人們需要的不是更正確的而是更適合的建議”的思索。

  我們若是將托福獨立寫作擬人化,他一定是個眉頭緊蹙、竭思苦慮的年輕人,像米開朗琪羅的大衛永眺羅馬那樣,他心系天下,事無巨細地憂愁著、永遠警醒。【托福獨立寫作問題咨詢】

  他曾重重地從理想的云端跌落,被慘敗擊潰。因此他問:“是不是人就不該懷抱野望,而要更務實地跟隨唾手可得的夢想?”

  他看到一邊是經濟與科技蒸蒸日上的發達國家,另一邊是掙扎在生存危機里的第三、第四世界,感到殘酷與荒謬。于是他問:“太空探索是否是種財力的浪費?”

  他渴望成功,因此他會問:“商業領導者應是敢于冒風險,還是要保守地靜待時機?”

  他想要效益最大化地利用自己的時間,因此他會問:“大學生應該學習他們感興趣的專業還是選擇將來就業容易的專業?”

  他困惑、迷茫,對自己沒有身份認同感,因此他會問:“人應該特立獨行,還是隨波逐流?”

  他深陷迷思,想要事業有成、風光無限、成為人們眼中理性跋扈的金融大亨,卻又舍不得詩與遠方、水仙花和白月光。對,他就是這樣膚淺、幼稚,透過他二元論的狹隘視角將一切極端地分割和歸類,非此即彼的處世態度,卻又妄圖魚與熊掌兼得。

  托福獨立寫作就是這樣一個令人憐愛又鄙夷的小孩。

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  而我們要做的便是為他答疑解惑,驅逐彷徨的迷霧。

  這其中他最喜愛問的,就是“深度VS廣度”這一價值觀沖突。

  例如2016年10月22日的考題:Some believe that young people should do various activities while others believe that they should focus on one activity that is important to them. Which one do you think is better and why?

  又例如官方題庫中的一道經典題目:Some universities require students to take classes in many subjects. Other universities require students to specialize in one subject. Which is better?Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

  筆者認為對這類涉及到“泛OR?!?、“廣OR深”話題的題目,采用支持“廣泛涉獵、綜合發展(dabble in multifarious bodies of knowledge in order to develop into a well——rounded person)”的立場是更好駕馭且更符合大眾的價值觀取向的。

  那么具體論證段落又該怎樣下筆呢?這里向大家推薦一種視角:太過專業反而有礙于解決問題(有點“淹死的都是會游泳的”的意味)。

  試看以下段落:

  School is a path to convergence in most cases. You start out broad and end at a point, from kindergarten where you’re learning multiple subjects to a PhD where you’re expected to master the most specific area of one topic.

  However,as elegantly concluded by Abraham Maslow,“if all you have is a hammer,everything looks like a nail,” a depth of knowledge can narrow one’s focus so much that they approach problem solving in the worst way. Instead of thoroughly breaking down a problem,they make it larger and more complex.

 ?。h譯:上學就如同一個萬法歸宗的過程。始于萬象,止于一方——在學前班時我們還學著各種不同的科目,到了修博士時卻被要求成為僅一個方面的專家。然而太過局限于一種視角的話反而會陷入盲區,無法順利解決問題,就像馬斯洛說的那樣:“如果你只有一把錘子,那一切都會看起來像個釘子”。相反,這樣的人會使問題更嚴峻復雜,而不是徹底瓦解它。)

  以上文字相當適宜作為開篇段落來回答此類題目。它很自然地概括了由泛至專的教育大環境,起到了短暫的讓步作用;而后很快轉折,利用名人名言作為起承轉合的軸承,讀起來邏輯銜接流暢,不會突兀。

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  這里筆者要提醒大家務必要記得Abraham Maslow(one of the most cited American psychologists of the 20th century)!只要遇到物質VS精神的話題,均可以用到他的“馬斯洛需求層次理論”(Maslow’s hierarchy of needs)。(譬如能夠切入“友誼和人際關系很重要因為人的自我實現取決于它們的前提”這個角度。)【托福獨立寫作經驗策略】

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  當然了,支持泛與專結合的立場也是個相當不錯的抉擇,對于擅長辯證思維、文筆成熟的考生而言是最能夠展示自己寫作水平的立場。那么文章的最后是幾段這種中立立場的素材,推薦大家學習和積累。

  Oh,did I mention that 知識的“寬”是breadth而不是width哦。

  You always need some of each. Possessing only a depth of knowledge would make you an idiot savant,fantastically capable at one thing and helpless in all other matters.

  Having only a breadth means you know a little about everything, but not enough to be useful at anything. There is a certain amount of depth needed for broad knowledge to be useful.

  If you are trying to push the boundaries of human knowledge, depth is important. It's why PhDs can be very specific. You need to know nearly everything about a very specific topic. However,breadth is still useful,as it can let you draw on ideas from other areas.

  Breadth of understanding is an expression of the ability to operate across disciplinary boundaries in a coherent and productive way, with principles drawn from different disciplines. Depth of understanding depends upon mastery of a body of knowledge, but it is not to be confused with knowledge, and is not necessarily commensurate with the number of courses taken in a subject.

  Depth and breadth of understanding depend upon,and they themselves contribute to, independence of thought; they contribute also to a love of learning.


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